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  1. These top 3 multi-blade pocket knives will give you the advantages that you need, whether at home or outdoors. Pocket knives are tools, not weapons. Tactical folding knives are designed for emergency rescue and tactical field activities such as emplacing trip-wired booby traps. They are also large enough to be used as a backup knife in a hand-to-hand combat situation. Additionally, tactical folding knife blades are designed for quick deployment with the use of a thumb stud or spring assistance. Therefore, tactical folders fall more into the weapon category than as field tools. By contrast, the traditional pocket knife is more of a tool than a weapon. Pocket knives were the first multitools before the plier-oriented Leatherman and Gerber concepts came to the market. Traditional pocket knives usually have one or two blades. Frontiersman and outdoorsmen use these knives for utility purposes such as setting traps, processing game, cutting bandage strips or carving simple tools. Moreover, the pocket knife tends to have an average length of the palm of a person’s hand when the blades are retracted into the handle. 1. Victorinox Swiss Army Hiker The first of the top three pocket knives that you should consider is the Swiss Army Hiker pocket knife by Victorinox®. It is my top pocket knife for either every day carrying or on the hiking trail. This knife falls into the medium knife category for Victorinox®. The Hiker combines a perfect blend of size and practicality. Some Swiss Army knives overpower you with options. However, the Hiker gives you precisely what you need without weighing down your pocket or pack. An alternative option for this pocket knife among the available Swiss Army knives is the Pioneer, Spartan, Tinker, or Farmer. The Hiker features include Can Opener, Key Ring, Large Blade, Phillips Screwdriver, Reamer, Small Blade, Toothpick, Tweezers, Wood Saw, Bottle Opener, Large Screwdriver, Small Screwdriver, Wire Stripper. It is a two-two blade knife. The two knife blades are X50CrMoV15 steel. This steel is comparable to 440A Stainless. One source gives the following explanation of the steel in the Swiss Army knife: The characteristics of X50CrMoV15 steel are the following: Very high hardness – Up to 56 Rockwell C Retention of blade sharpness Moderate corrosion resistance better than standard 12% martensitic grades Poor weldability According to the description, X50CrMoV15 uses the moderately high carbon content of 0.50% to develop a high hardness martensitic microstructure. The higher chromium plus small molybdenum addition gives a greater corrosion resistance than standard martensitic grades. Vanadium allows higher tempering temperatures to be used and gives greater toughness. Therefore, the Swiss Army Hiker pocket knife is a durable and reliable knife to take to the outdoors or around town. 2. U.S. Army Pocket Knife (NSN: 5110-00-162-2205) The U.S. Army pocket knife is an all-weather stainless steel pocket knife. Several different manufacturers have produced the knife since its beginnings. Case, Marbles, Camillus, and the Colonial Knife Company have been the makers of the knife. This pocket knife is a general-purpose knife that was a standard item in military survival kits and maintenance toolsets for many years. They are becoming more difficult to find through regular retail or online stores. You can purchase them on eBay® as military surplus. Marbles® is making a replica of lower quality than the original for less than $20. Currently, the knife can be ordered through the Colonial Knife Company® in Rhode Island. They are still making the knife to military specification per MIL-K-818D. However, an alternative option for this knife is the Boy Scouts® Camp Pocket Knife. The Boy Scout knife has the same knife blades and tools as the U.S. Army pocket knife. However, it has bone scales instead of stainless steel ones. Case Knives® used to make a similar knife to the BSA® knife. The latest search of their website reveals their version of this pocket knife is not available. The blade material for the U.S. Army Pocket knife is 440 Stainless Steel. 440 Stainless Steel is often in use with medical cutting instruments. Knife blades of this material have a resistance to corrosion and retain their edge. Since the purpose of the knife is for general use, the blade material is suitable for that application. 3. Buck Knives® 301 Stockman® Knife The Buck Knives® 301 Stockman® Knife is a classic pocket knife configuration. This pocket knife is the preferred knife of my dad. He has worn out several of these over the years. The knife has three blades which are of 420HC stainless steel. The handle comes with two options: rosewood or black Valox™. Furthermore, 301 Stockman is made in the USA. The company says of the blades on the knife, “The clip blade is good for detailed work, the spey blade is good for skinning or sweeping knife strokes, and sheepsfoot blade is perfect for giving a clean cut, especially on a flat cutting surface.” As a general-purpose pocket knife for your everyday needs or in the field, the Buck Knives 301 Stockman is an excellent option to consider if you are in the market for a quality pocket knife. Concluding Comments Pocket knives are part of the outdoor sporting world. They have been around for a long time. Additionally, these knives are a standard tool for many people who need a general use knife blade. There is some discussion about how to categorize pocket knives as tools or weapons. However, your local laws will dictate the definition and categorizing of pocket knives as weapons or tools. If you are looking for reliable and quality pocket knives, the three knives in this article are options to consider adding to your kit or loadout. The post Top 3 Multi-Blade Pocket Knives appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  2. How is your physical fitness? There are seven areas of consideration to help achieve and maintain your peak physical readiness. Physical fitness is a critical element for long term survival in the outdoors. Survival and preparedness experts agree that staying healthy and in shape will give you an edge in a survival situation. The physical fitness movement that began in the 1980s is an extension of the organic lifestyle movement of the 1960s. Thus, health, wellness, and being fit physically have characterized much of American culture over the last fifty years. The military is no stranger to maintaining good health. There are seven areas of concern when implementing your physical fitness program. 1. Nutrition The first area to consider is nutrition. Proper eating habits are a key element to any physical fitness program. Many people like diet programs such as Weight Watchers®, The Atkins Diet®, or The Paleo Diet. However, for some people, the short-term gains from engaging in diet programs never seem to translate into long-term and permanent weight loss. Some studies suggest that those who lose weight will gain over 10% more than their original weight when they stop dieting. Therefore, eating properly over your lifespan is central to maintaining proper weight and nutrition. Healthy eating means eating balanced meals and in the proper proportions every day. Remembering the five food groups for daily nutrition will help to achieve your nutrition goals. The five food groups are meat, vegetables, fruits, grains, and dairy. Portion size also is an element of proper nutrition. Those who engage in vegan or vegetarian diets will substitute the meat and dairy for other items. Healthy eating will give you the vitamins, minerals, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates that your body requires. Additionally, as you consider proper nutrition and dieting, it is advisable to consult a professional, licensed nutritionist recommended by your personal or family doctor. Do not attempt a diet or nutrition regimen on your own solely based on articles or books that you read. Those sources speak to the general human condition, not your specific health concerns or needs. For example, many health experts discuss taking chondroitin glucosamine for joint health. I am not able to take it because it comes from shellfish. I have been forbidden by my doctor to eat seafood or products from seafood because of my iodine allergy. Therefore, consult your physician before engaging in a nutrition program. 2. Sleep Sleep often is overlooked as a component of good health. However, most medical experts agree that getting an adequate amount of sleep every night is part of being a healthy person. An adult person needs around eight hours of sleep every night, according to the experts. A famous general once stated that any soldier who could not stay awake for three straight days was lazy. By contrast, medical science and research relate that sleep deprivation reduces mental alertness, affects decision-making, aggravates the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Some of the survival programs on television demonstrate that after a period of low food intake and lack of sleep, many contestants begin to faint or make critical mental errors. Therefore, when appropriate, do not be afraid to sleep when your body is telling you to get some rest. 3. Activity The more obvious part and easiest to understand about physical fitness is activity. Generally speaking, an active person is a healthy person. An active lifestyle is more than just going for a jog every day or a day-hike on the weekend. An active lifestyle is one in which your mind and body are continually exercised in a positive manner. Getting outdoors is just one way to accomplish that reality. However, as it relates to survival tasks, your body needs a balanced training routine to achieve functional physical fitness. Functional physical fitness helps you accomplish the tasks necessary to enable survival in any environment, such as climbing or hand-to-hand self-defense. A balanced physical fitness training program involves three key areas: strength, endurance, and mobility. 4. Strength Strength training is a vital part of a physical conditioning program. It usually involves weight training to increase strength, power, and endurance in the major muscle groups. Strength training is an anaerobic exercise. An example of anaerobic exercise is lifting weights, push-ups, sit-ups, or grip strengthening exercises. Anaerobic exercises are those characterized by the use of resistance to build muscle mass in the body. Additionally, it is best to get your doctor’s recommendation or approval before participating in a strength training workout. It is also advisable to get a training partner if possible. Lifting weights can be fun but also dangerous. I have heard about several accidents over the years in which an overconfident individual got killed or maimed for life because of doing something irresponsible in the weight room and without a partner. Don’t be that person. Be safe, go slow, start light, and get help if you want to get the most out of a weight training program. 5. Endurance The fifth area of consideration in building your functional physical fitness is endurance. Endurance training also is known as aerobic exercise. These kinds of activities involve the intake of oxygen through the respiratory system. Thus, aerobic training exercises the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Some examples of aerobic training are running, jogging, interval running, skipping rope, bicycling, rowing, aerobic dancing, or spinning. Consequently, endurance training helps with both muscle endurance and respiratory efficiency. For example, ultramarathon runners have to have bodies that have muscle endurance and can effectively get oxygen to those muscles during their runs. Moreover, an efficient cardiovascular and respiratory system helps reduce the time needed for muscle recovery. 6. Flexibility Flexibility training is the secret to success in your training program. Stretching out your body before working out addresses your body’s ability to bend and stretch. There is some debate in professional circles about the viability of stretching before or after a workout. Some believe it is needful and others discourage it. However, my personal experience is that stretching out before and after a period of exercise helps to prevent joint, muscle, and ligament damage. When I was in the military, stretching out before and after a workout in the weight room, road march, or a run enabled me to stay fit-to-fight when others were succumbing to injury. 7. Consistency Consistency is the ultimate secret to success next to flexibility training in your physical fitness program. Your fit-to-survive program should center on consistency. Inconsistency in your training routine is a sure way to injury. An inconsistent workout tears the body down rather than builds it up. If you are going to start a physical fitness program, be dedicated to it enough to be consistent. An example of a consistent workout schedule would exercising or working out every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. There are many great workout schedules by reputable organizations on the internet. Therefore, you should be consistent with your training if you want to reduce the possibility of long-term problems like tendonitis, pulled muscles, torn rotator cuffs, or similar injuries. Final Thoughts Physical fitness is an individual matter between yourself and your doctor. As stated earlier, do not engage in a program without your doctor’s approval. My doctor has approved walking, hiking, and backpacking for my physical fitness program. Running, obstacle courses, climbing Mount Everest, or adventure sports are off the table due to my knees and back. I could do them should I have a mind to; however, is the risk worth the reward? Therefore, be safe and keep fit and enjoy yourself as you get in shape or maintain your level of physical fitness. The post How Is Your Physical Fitness? Seven Areas of Consideration appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  3. There are five survival items that you should carry at all times. We never know when we will be in an emergency survival situation. One does not need to be going deep in the backcountry to prepare for an unplanned event. There are many discussions about everyday carry (EDC), bug out bags (BOB), and other solutions to address emergencies. However, emergency survival does not gradually creep up on a person. An emergency survival situation happens suddenly and catches someone by surprise. It is similar to an ambush in combat. In the chaos of the initial minutes of a survival situation, the survival gear you are carrying will be the first items employed. Therefore, it is essential to carry these five gear items as a baseline in your emergency survival planning. These items are compatible in any environment in which a survival situation arises. 1. Triple Sensor Solar Digital Watch The triple sensor digital solar watch is a versatile survival item that you can carry at all times. The vital aspect of these watches is that they are compatible with wearing business attire or rugged outdoor clothing. The triple sensor watch is also known as an ABC watch. These watches give you three sensors that display, (A) altitude, (B) barometer/temperature, and (C) compass readings. Advantages All three capabilities allow you to have situational awareness of your environment at all times. Most of these watches have a built-in light, so the watch display is readable at night. The solar cells in the watch face charge the internal battery. As a result, the watch stays operational at all times. For example, I purchased my watch in 2015 and have never encountered a need to change the battery. Disadvantages The main disadvantage with a triple sensor digital watch is that the compass readings can be tricky to understand. Additionally, the compass does not constantly display for use like a baseplate or orienteering compass in the outdoors. Thus, the compass enables dead reckoning for gaining a bearing rather than shooting and maintaining an azimuth. However, during an emergency survival situation, the triple sensor watch can get you through the mad-minute until you can stop, observe, assess, reassess and reorient (SOAR) your situation. 2. Pocket Knife/Folding Knife The pocket knife is a traditional survival tool. The history of the pocket knife spans human history from the Iron Age to the present times. However, the pocket knife in its current configuration came about in the 1600s. A pocket knife goes by another name, such as a folder or tactical folder. Nevertheless, the pocket knife is a versatile tool to carry at all times. The environment that you function in every day will influence what kind of pocket knife that you carry on you at all times. Like the triple sensor watch, carrying a pocket knife works as well with business attire as it does with outdoor clothing. Blade Length Consideration The knife blade on a pocket knife does not have to be very long to meet your needs. The smallest blade length to of practical use is one that is between 2.5 and 3.5 inches. Some companies offer pocket knives with shorter knife blades. Consequently, those knives have a limitation in their use. However, a pocket knife blade that has a minimum length of around 3 inches will allow you to get through the initial minutes of an emergency. However, a pocket knife with a 4-5-inch blade is optimal. Is a pocket knife a tool or a weapon? The local laws governing the carrying of knives influences what kinds of knives one can carry. For example, the famous stiletto switchblade knives are illegal to carry in some places because they are classified as weapons rather than as utility tools. Some survival experts recommend carrying a knife to use as a tool and as a self-defense weapon. However, it is prudent to understand what your local laws allow and prohibit regarding the carrying of knives. Recommended Pocket Knives The Swiss Army Farmer by Victorinox is a good pocket knife to carry. Another decent pocket knife is the Stockman by Buck Knives. A budget-friendly pocket knife is the TecX® X-Pro I by Case Knives. One of these knives is a great cutting option to consider carrying as part of the baseline emergency survival gear that you carry at all times whether you are in the office or out in the backcountry. 3. Butane Lighter The butane lighter is a standard fire starting method in most emergency survival kit configurations. Butane lighters have been around for a long time. The most recognizable butane lighters are the Zippo® and Bic® brands. Zippo® lighters are made of stainless steel and can be refilled with butane lighter fluid. Bic® lighters are a disposable lighter made of plastic. Therefore, either type of lighter can enable making an emergency fire in any environment. Advantages The advantages of carrying a butane lighter are the ability to produce a flame with relative ease. These lighters can be carried in the inner pocket of a suit coat or the trouser pocket of casual or outdoor pants. Therefore, if you need to make a hasty fire in an emergency, the butane lighter enables the completion of that survival task. Disadvantages A disadvantage with butane lighters is the limited amount of fuel they carry to produce a flame. Butane fuel also evaporates over time. The Bic lighter has a vapor release button that if depressed, will release the vapors of the fuel. Bic lighters are not refillable once the fuel is gone. By contrast, Zippo lighters have a saturated cotton batting on the bottom. The butane fuel evaporates from this batting and requires periodic refilling. Thus, one needs to carry a can of butane fuel to refill a Zippo lighter. Survival Considerations Despite their disadvantages, in an emergency survival situation, the butane lighter is reliable enough to enable you to start a fire when necessary. They are safe to carry in an urban environment or on the trail. They are simple to use. 4. Micro LED Flashlight Micro flashlights are an essential item to carry on you at all times. These flashlights are sometimes known as keychain flashlights. There are two common types of these flashlights: tubular and flat. The tubular style micro flashlight looks like a miniature version of a traditional flashlight. It usually has to be twisted to be turned on. The flat style flashlight tends to have an oval or rectangular shape and operate with a button depressed switch. 5. Hand Sanitizer Wipes Hand Sanitizer Wipes are a convenient way to carry a dual purpose survival item. In a previous article, we gave some discussion about hand sanitizer as a survival item. Hand sanitizer wipes are single-use wipes that can clean your hands or function as tinder to start a fire. These wipes fit easily into a wallet, purse, shirt, or trouser pockets. A hand sanitizing wipe used with a butane lighter will allow an emergency fire to be built. Final Thoughts Emergency survival planning involves decisions about the gear one carries. Sometimes these discussions transition into everyday carry, bugging out or getting home kits. The items in the list above are not comprehensive in nature. Instead, they are a simple baseline which allows for additions and modifications to fit your environment and needs. However, one of the lessons that 9-11 teaches is the importance of carrying survival gear on you during an emergency. For example, in a mass casualty event in an urban setting, you may not be able to access that EDC bag or get to your car and pull your get home bag. Therefore, those survival items that you have access to in an emergency can influence the outcome. Moreover, in an emergency survival situation in the backcountry, you may be separated from your main pack. Thus, what you carry on yourself, such as, in your pockets, may determine the difference between life and death. For example, you may suffer a mechanical injury that immobilizes you or severely limits your ability to move. Your pocket knife, microlight, or butane lighter may be the x-factor in your being rescued. The story of Aron Ralston reveals the value of carrying survival gear on you when emergency survival happens to you. The post 5 Survival Items You Should Carry At All Times appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  4. Do you have these seven basic first-aid items? Recent events reveal the importance of carrying first aid items at all times. The discussion of rendering emergency first-aid to someone often falls into the two categories of general first-aid and trauma first-aid. The U.S. Army discovered that trauma first-aid would be more common in a combat environment. Consequently, they adopted the Improved First Aid Kit (IFAK), which became known as the Individual First Aid Kit. The IFAK is essentially a trauma kit. Therefore, there are seven items to find as a foundation to build any size first aid kit from a personal kit to a group kit. 1. Tourniquet Nearly all of the survival and preparedness experts agree that a tourniquet is a core item for any first-aid kit. A tourniquet helps stop bleeding to a severely injured extremity. However, improper application of a tourniquet can cause more injury, permanent loss of a limb, or even death under extreme circumstances. Thus, you should get certified first-aid training through the Red Cross or other authorized medical training organizations on the proper use of a tourniquet. There are several versions and styles of the tourniquet. The tourniquet that is easy to employ is the CAT Tourniquet. CAT is an acronym that stands for Combat Application Tourniquet. These are currently in use with military and law enforcement organizations. There are other kinds of tourniquets, such as the ratchet tourniquet, the rapid application tourniquet (RAT), and the stretch-wrap-and-tuck (SWAT) tourniquet. However, whichever one that you prefer, a tourniquet should be an item in any first aid kit. 2. Cutting Device Emergency first-aid may require cutting clothing away from an injury. Therefore, cutting is an essential task in first aid. An option for a cutting instrument is the Leatherman® Skeletool® RX. It is small enough that it will fit into most first-aid pouches on the market. However, if you cannot afford this multitool, then a quality pair of medical shears or scissors are a good option. Cutting is an essential task for rendering aid to a traumatic injury. A decent cutting instrument is helpful to enable this task. Therefore, a cutting tool of some type should be in any first-aid kit. 3. Disposable Medical Gloves The wearing of medical gloves is vital for both the one giving first-aid and the one receiving the aid. Medical gloves help to reduce the transferring of germs into a person’s open wounds from the hands of the one rendering aid. They also reduce the risk to first-responders from absorbing blood-borne pathogens through the skin of their hands that an injured person may have in their system. 4. Self-Adhesive Bandage Wrap Self-adhesive bandage wrap is a critical part of your first-aid considerations. The primary reason for its usefulness is that it can be applied to a wide variety of emergency medical applications. Self-adhesive bandage wrap is useful for making hasty pressure bandages, wrapping cuts with gauze, securing slings, and making slings. There is no glue-type adhesive. Therefore, these bandages work well in arid environments. 5. Quick Clot Gauze Quick Clot is a recent development in the medical field. It officially goes by the name of hemostatic gauze. The clotting agent, Kaolin, helps to enable the blood to thicken. Therefore, it is terrific for stopping the bleeding on deep cuts, gashes, and penetration wounds to the body upon which a tourniquet is not necessary. Z-Medica is the manufacturer of Quick Clot products. Quick Clot should be part of your first-aid kit considerations. 6. Disposable Medical Face Mask Many airborne contaminants and pathogens are floating in the air. We breathe them in and exhale them out every day. A medical mask should be part of your baseline considerations when building any first-aid kit. These masks do for the respiratory system that the medical gloves do for the hands. They help reduce the risk of breathing out germs into the open wounds of a person or breathing them in if the patient has an illness. Some types of medical masks have a clear plastic shield attached to prevent blood-borne pathogens from entering the body through the eyes. Therefore, a disposable medical face mask should be part of your first-aid kit loadout. 7. Israeli Compression Bandage Bandages have been part of first-aid kits since their development. The military understands that the availability of bandages is a matter of life and death for the battlefield wounded. The increase in adverse situations in our contemporary era calls for the availability of bandages in everyday life. Consequently, an essential kind of dressing is the pressure bandage. A person knowing how to apply a pressure bandage to a severe bleeding injury efficiently is a critical task to master. The best compression bandages on the market are the Israeli Compression Bandages. They are effective and easy to apply to an injury. The older, Vietnam era, pressure bandages were useful but could be cumbersome to use in a stressful situation because of the way they had to be wrapped and secured. Thus, you should consider keeping an Israeli Compression Bandage in all of your first-aid kits. Furthermore, you should always get first-aid training from a reputable organization, such as the Red Cross, before attempting to apply any pressure bandage. Final Thoughts First-aid kits are becoming an essential element to possess in the lives of everyday people. The rise in violent criminal activity in our nation has made people more aware of the necessity of keeping first-aid kits available. The seven items in the above discussion should be the foundation upon which to build your own first-aid kit. You need to get certified first-aid training through a reputable source before attempting to render any kind of medical aid to someone. The only exception should be those already well-rehearsed in giving first-aid to someone, such as military personnel, combat veterans, medical and law enforcement personnel. Once you receive training in first-aid, build your kit, then, keep it handy and ready for use. The post Do You Have These Seven Basic First-Aid Items? appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  5. Will compasses keep you on track? Land navigation is an essential skill to learn for wilderness survival. Therefore, the compass is a critical part of successful land navigation. People navigated by the stars, dead reckoning, and terrain association before the invention of the compass or the nautical sextant astrolabe. There are many kinds of compasses available to the modern outdoorsman. Compasses fall into two categories based on the method of needle stabilization, also known as damping: liquid-filled and magnetic induction. Thus, purchasing a quality compass for use in the field is as important as having an accurate topographic map. 1. Liquid-filled Compasses The most common type of compass on the commercial market are those with liquid damping. Liquid damping is the method of stabilizing needle movement by immersing it in an enclosed, liquid-filled housing chamber. Several types of liquid are in use for this method. Mineral oil, kerosene, or ethyl alcohol are the most common. Minimizing needle movement in a compass ensures maintaining a direction while trekking over land. An example of a liquid-filled compass is the Suunto Clipper Wrist Compass or the Suunto M3 Baseplate Compass. A quality liquid-filled compass is an excellent option for those who enjoy the outdoors recreationally or you are living in an urban-suburban survival zone. Advantages: The advantage of a liquid-filled compass is the retail cost to the consumer. Many of the budget-friendly compasses on the market are those that have liquid damping. Commercial button and wrist compasses use the liquid dampening method for needle stabilization. Therefore, compasses manufactured with this dampening method make them accessible to the average consumer. Examples of budget-friendly compasses using liquid-filled dampening are those by Coghlan’s and Coleman. Disadvantages: A disadvantage of compasses with liquid damping is that the liquid can form bubbles. These bubbles can affect compass accuracy. Another problem with these kinds of compasses is that the liquid can thicken in arctic temperatures. Consequently, the thickened oil restricts needle movement. This characteristic of oil-filled compasses limits there use to non-military applications. Moreover, the high temperatures in the summer in arid environments can cause the liquid to expand or evaporate. Consequently, if the housing becomes cracked, the liquid will leak out. Thus, the compass becomes inoperable. 2. Magnetic Induction Damping Compasses Compasses using magnetic induction damping are the second most common compasses available to the outdoorsman. A compass utilizing magnetic induction is one in which the needle is stabilized through a magnetized field created within the needle housing. The most common way that this happens is by a magnet passing through an electromagnetic field. However, magnetic induction damping in a typical lensatic compass occurs when the magnetized needle is moving through a copper needle housing. The U.S. Army M-1950 lensatic compass is an example of this kind of compass. Magnetic induction damping compasses are the preference of most militaries around the world. Advantages The significant advantage of a compass using magnetic induction damping over liquid damping is its use in extreme temperatures. The compass with magnetic damping is usable in extreme arctic and extreme tropical or desert environments. The absence of the liquid in the needle housing eliminates the concern over the liquid freezing or expanding due to extreme temperatures. Another advantage of these kinds of compasses is they tend to give a more accurate and stable reading when shooting an azimuth. The stability of the needle enables their use for land navigation in both night and day situations. Most military compasses copy the lensatic sighting mirror compasses first introduced by the British on the eve of the twentieth century. You can learn more about the U.S. Army lensatic compass in my article, “A Short History of the U. S. Army M-1950 Lensatic Compass.” Disadvantages A disadvantage with compasses that have magnetic induction damping is that they can be more expensive to the average consumer. The process that creates the magnetic induction damping feature of the compass is more complicated than merely filling the needle housing with liquid. Furthermore, the compass housings must be of metal construction for the magnetic damping to work. Consequently, the cost increases to manufacture these compasses. The second disadvantage of a compass using magnetic induction damping is that it can be complicated to use. For example, complaints often heard against the U.S. Army’s lensatic compass is that it is hard to use to take an azimuth and for land navigation. By contrast, those trained and experienced with these compasses use them as well as a person favoring the Suunto MC-2 Compass. Furthermore, the U.S. Army lensatic compass was designed to meet the specific needs and standards of the military and for military operations. They were not designed for use to survive the apocalypse, SHTF, or grid-down scenarios. Therefore, it is understandable why there are complaints about lensatic compasses. Final Thoughts A quality compass is a must-have item in the packing lists of your various bags. The two most common types of compasses are the liquid-filled and those using magnetic induction damping. Additionally, the compass that you adopt is one that should be accurate, durable, and magnetized for the proper hemisphere. You do not want to stake your life on a compass of lower quality. Most survival experts advise spending money on a good fixed-blade knife. The same recommendation is valid for the purchase of your compass. Furthermore, if you are a world traveler, there are quality compasses available for use in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Suunto and Brunton have compasses that meet this need. A quality compass is an instrument that will enable your survival should you get lost on the trail or the backcountry. Therefore, choose your compass wisely and deliberately. The post Will Compasses Keep You On Track? appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  6. Nine improvised survival items could save your life. Most news stories about lost or missing people give information on the gear or lack of equipment the person is carrying on them. It is interesting to read how the lost person is not taking some essential item like a compass. In the case of the missing hiker, John Donovan, everything he needed to survive was on him. However, he perished after becoming stranded in a box canyon in the San Jacinto Mountains outside of Palm Springs, California. The topic of survival gear does bring up an essential aspect of wilderness survival, the skill of improvisation. In other words, the ability to create survival tools or methods from everyday items to enable survival is an essential part of wilderness survival. There are many suggestions on the internet about creating survival hacks or improvised tools. This article will focus on those items that an average person carries when they go into a field location. Most people only go outdoors on a recreational basis. Thus, they are not thinking about bringing a complete survival loadout stuffed in a 50-75 liter backpack. They are only going outdoors for a short period and returning home. Therefore, a small day pack or waist pack is the most that they carry with them. Thus, these items can be employed in an emergency if necessary. 1. Smart Phone Signal Mirror One of the essential communication devices that one usually carries on an outdoor adventure is their smartphone. The smartphone can be an improvised survival gear item by being functioning as a signal mirror. Most smartphones have a flat-screen that is large enough to reflect sunlight. The way to use the screen on a smartphone as a signal mirror is to turn it off, then employ it in the same manner as a survival signal mirror. 2. Camera Lens Fire Starter A second improvised survival gear item often overlooked is the lens on a camera. Many people take cameras on their outdoor adventure. Small, pocket-sized digital cameras are popular with many people trekking outdoors for the day. However, the lens in the camera is an excellent fire-making source. The camera lens is a magnifying glass. The lens is powerful enough to start a fire using the sun to focus light on a tinder source. Therefore, do not be afraid of breaking apart your camera to get to the lens in a survival ordeal, even if it is an expensive Canon or Nikon. 3. Bottle Cap Survival Whistle Another great improvised survival gear item is that of making a survival whistle from a simple water bottle cap. One survival expert demonstrated this during a recent television program. I found a water bottle cap and tried the procedure myself. It works! A water bottle cap from a Dasani or Aquafina bottle can be used as an emergency whistle. You hold the bottle cap by placing your thumbs over the opening. You create a small gap between you thumb knuckles and blow air through that gap. It will make a high pitch whistle sound that is very loud. 4. Sewing Needle Compass Sewing needles are usually not considered an improvised survival gear item. However, in an emergency, they can be used as improvised compass needles to help determine magnetic north. A stainless steel sewing needle from your pocket travel sewing kit can be magnetized to become a compass needle. You take the needle and rub it rigorously for a few minutes with 100% wool material. The static electricity created from the friction will magnetize the needle. Then you can tie the needle in the middle with a piece of shirt string. You dangle the needle on the thread with your hand, and it will adjust to point to magnetic north. Another option would be to put the needle on top of a leaf and float the leaf in a container of water, and it will adjust to point to magnetic north. 5. Boot Lace Cordage Survival experts will tell you that the most forgotten source of cordage is a person’s shoe or boot laces. Possessing and utilizing cordage is an essential survival skill. Laces for military-issued boots are made of a sturdy material similar to 550 parachute cord. Some companies are starting to produce survival boot laces. Nevertheless, in an emergency, remember that your hiking boots or shoes will give some quick cordage for a multitude of emergency needs. 6. Hand Sanitizer Tinder One innovative way of your hand sanitizer is as tinder for starting a fire. Many people carry the small travel-sized bottles of hand sanitizer in their backpack. Some people carry them in the pocket of their trousers or waist pack. Hand sanitizer is a flammable gel or liquid consisting of 60-95% alcohol. Thus, it will take a spark very effectively. A more convenient way to carry hand sanitizer is in the form of a towelette. The towelettes are paper saturated with hand sanitizer. The combination of these two materials makes excellent fuel for making fires. I carry two of these in my wallet at all times to make an emergency fire when necessary. It is important to note that the medical wipes containing rubbing alcohol or BZK are not flammable and will not catch on fire. 7. Car Key Saw Your car keys can be a source for a cutting instrument. How many of us have used our keys to open packages received in the mail? In the field, your keys can offer a crude sawing device to make notches in branches for making traps or snares. Your keys do not provide the most efficient sawing edge; however, if that is all you have, do not hesitate to employ them. 8. Bandana Water Filter A lost person in the wilderness needs a steady supply of water to maintain the functions necessary to ensure survival. The bandana gives a person many options in a survival situation. The bandana can be used as headgear, tinder source, carrying device, bandage, washcloth, or signaling device. Moreover, another use of the bandana is that of a hasty water filter. The bandana, by itself, will not filter out waterborne pathogens. However, when it is used with an improvised filter using rocks, dirt, and charcoal, it is an effective means to gain drinkable water. If there is no other way to sanitize water, the bandana will filter out large particulates. 9. Duct Tape Bandages There are many uses for duct tape. Some show that duct tape can be fashioned into a water carrier, waterproofing, and as fire tinder. However, one of the most common ways that duct tape functions is for first aid. A method of using duct tape is that of bandages. Bandages can be fashioned from duct tape if one does not have or has lost their first aid kit. Many hiker, hunters, and backpacker carry a small roll of duct tape for equipment repair. Duct tape is quite useful at bandaging flesh wounds in an emergency. Final Thoughts Improvising survival tools from those things you carry on your body is a great skill to cultivate. If you find yourself lost and separated from others, the stuff you have on you can help you to survive. These items in the discussion above are not an exhaustive list. People carry different things on them. However, in a general manner, the items above are the most common. Remember that emergency survival is about staying cool, calm, collected while simultaneously being innovative, flexible, and resourceful. The post 9 Improvised Survival Items That Could Save Your Life appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  7. Do you have head protection? Two headgear options are the patrol/operator cap and the Boonie hat. Headgear is an essential item in your loadout for the outdoors. The benefits of wearing the proper headgear are many. However, the primary benefit of wearing headgear outdoors is to protect your head from the sunlight, heat, and cold. Your outdoor environment and the time of year will influence the type of headwear that you use. The use of headgear for outdoor activities is one that spans most of human history. Therefore, it is essential to protect yourself by including a headwear option in your kit. 1. The Patrol/Operator Cap The patrol/operator cap is the style of outdoor headwear with the most recognition in our contemporary era. Consequently, all outdoor sporting activities have various styles and material patterns of these hats. Moreover, the military patrol cap has its origins in the kepi hat in use with the French Army during their Napoleonic Era (1799-1820). This style of military headwear became part of the U.S. Army before the U.S. Civil War. However, modifications to the kepi were introduced in which the current U.S. Army-issued patrol cap has a direct lineage. The Kepi and Baseball Hat Connection Later, the kepi-type hat had a modification change in the United States for use in the fledgling sport of baseball on the eve of the twentieth century. The main modification was that of a soft and rounded crown which conforms to the natural curvature of the head. Baseball caps became a fashionable headwear in America throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. Currently, many sporting goods manufacturers produce their version of the baseball cap for use in golfing, fishing, hunting, running, and backpacking. A health advantage is keeping direct sunlight out of the eyes and off of the head. The double-layered military surplus patrol cap is designed to hold up to one liter of water as an emergency water carrier. The Operator Cap Additionally, a recent change to the patrol cap is in the operator cap. The operator cap is a hybrid between the military patrol cap and the baseball cap. These hats are popular with many in the security fields, SOF community, and outdoorsman. The visors tend to be reinforced, which makes them durable in the field. They incorporate breathable material into their construction. These hats tend to be lightweight. Therefore, they are practical for use in storing in cargo pockets of trousers or the outer pockets of packs. The usefulness of the operator cap is its compatibility with hunting or tactical communication headsets. 2. The Boonie Hat Boonie hats are popular with many outdoorsmen who live in the more wooded areas of the U.S. The Boonie hat has its origins during the Vietnam War era (1955-1975). The first use of these hats in the field was by soldiers of Special Operations (SOF) units and Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (LRRP) units. The design of the hat seems to have its origins in the older version of the U.S. Navy rolled brim hats that were replaced by the modern Dixie Cup hat. The Boonie Hat Verses The Patrol Cap Its versatility gave soldiers an essential piece of survival gear while patrolling in the jungles of Vietnam. The Boonie hat has advantages in the jungle environment over the patrol cap. The most important benefit is it camouflages the face and head. The health advantage it gives is to allow heat to escape from the head through the venting grommets on the sides of the hat. This feature of the hat helps to reduce heat-related medical problems. Additionally, soldiers of Operation Desert Storm (1991) used the Boonie hat to help endure the heat of the desert. The Commercial Boonie Hats The Boonie hat has its counterparts in the outdoor sporting world. Hunters and backpackers began using these hats when they became available in surplus stores. Outdoor gear manufacturers then started producing their own versions of these types of hats. For example, the Fjallraven Hatfield Hat incorporates some features of the Boonie hat. Others began producing their copies of the Boonie hat calling them bucket hats, such as the 5.11 Tactical Boonie Hat. The Advantages Of The Boonie Hat The Boonie hat gives advantages over the patrol cap for hikers and backpackers. There are two advantages of the Boonie hat over the patrol cap. One is shading the back of the neck from direct sunlight. The other is that it reduces the risk of getting ticks falling from overhead vegetation. Furthermore, the Boonie hat can be folded and placed in the cargo pocket of trousers or rolled and stored in a backpack. Final Thoughts Headgear is a critical item to consider for your outdoor activities. The military patrol/operator cap or Boonie hat gives you protection from the sun. They help your body regulate heat to maintain your core body temperature. Some of the commercial versions of these hats offer UV protection, such as Columbia’s® Coolhead Cachalot cap or the Bora Bora II Bonnie Hat. Yet, some people like to go outdoors without wearing headgear. However, most people quickly learn the value of a quality hat when it is hot or raining. Hats help keep you from getting a heat-related injury or direct sunlight into your eyes. The patrol cap and Boonie cap give an extra layer of protection for your eyes when you are wearing sunglasses such as the Oakley® Flak 2.0 or the ESS® Crossbow 2X. Military surplus patrol caps and Boonie hats are a budget-friendly alternative to consider when adding headgear into your packing list. Military-issued patrol caps and boonies have a U.S. Government label stitched on the inside. The label gives information about the hat to include its national stock number (NSN). National Stock Numbers help surplus stores find what you want. Avoid purchasing the military replicas of the patrol cap or Boonie hat. They are made with substandard materials and workmanship. A military surplus store will have authentic patrol caps and Boonie hats for purchase. The post Do You Have Head Protection? Two Headgear Options appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  8. Are you ready to survive an emergency at your location? Is your survival context urban or the wilderness? In recent days, I have read a few articles and watched a few presentations relating to urban or wilderness survival. It is interesting to notice one preference over another. These preferences are due to the leanings of those making their case. One’s environment influences the preferred approach to emergency preparedness. My own experiences with outdoor recreational activities, weather emergencies, military field training, and combat deployments accentuate this truism. Thus, there are two basic categories of survival that are the most common in the literature: urban survival and wilderness survival. My article on survival approaches further breaks these down. However, in this article, I will discuss the urban and wilderness methods for survival planning from a broader perspective. The Urban Survival Approach The contemporary interest in urban survival is a more recent development in the survival and preparedness world. The popularity in the zombie genre of dystopian movies and television program seems to have been the impetus for the interest. The concern about the sudden collapse of modern society intensified with the Y2K scare of the late 1990s. Lofty Wiseman’s book, SAS Urban Survival Handbook (1996) discusses urban survival and is a standard read on the subject. Thus, urban survival became a hot topic in the early decades of the new century. What is urban survival? The name, urban, implies the context in which one needs to survive: a city, town, or metroplex. The urbanization of the United States is a byproduct of its Industrial Revolution (1865-1920). The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that close to 63% of America’s population lives in urban and suburban areas. Furthermore, strategic thinker and author, David Kilcullen writes of the increasing urbanization of warfare in his book, Out of the Mountains: The Coming Age of the Urban Guerrilla (2013). Therefore, urban survival planning a viable exercise for those living in that context. The Uniqueness of the Urban Environment There are many contrasts between an urban environment and the wilderness environment. The concerns of the urban environment are unique. For example, a person attempting to survive in an urban or suburban context does not have to worry about building a shelter in the same manner as their wilderness counterparts. One can occupy an abandoned building or house if necessary and if it is safe. The stories of urban survival from the siege of Stalingrad to the killing fields of Sarajevo give ample evidence of the peculiarities of urban survival. A feature of urban survival are the kinds of items necessary for an emergency kit. Thus, urban survival requires some different things that are not present in a wilderness survival loadout. For example, most urban survival kits include a sillcock key. A sillcock key is unnecessary beyond the rural survival zone. Why? There are no commercial buildings with secured outside water faucets in the backcountry that require a sillcock key to access. It is common for urban survival kits to feature lock picking tools. Again, these are unnecessary in the deep backcountry for living off of the land. Lock picking tools assist in getting into buildings to obtain food, water, or shelter in an urban or suburban survival zone. The movie, World War Z, has a good representation of the importance of accessing a grocery store or hospital pharmacy during a societal collapse. Lock picking tools enable that activity. Some Observations About The Urban Environment Additionally, the urban environment offers some infrastructure that is not available to those living near or in the wilderness. Cities and towns provide a utility grid (gas, water, electricity), if operational, which allows access to potable water, refrigeration, communication, sanitation, and emergency medical care. Stable buildings offer shelter and protection from the weather, predation, and criminal activity. The main weaknesses with the urban environment are the available resources, like food, medicine, and water. In an urban collapse, such as that after Hurricane Katrina, those resources dwindle very quickly. It is estimated that major grocery stores only maintain about a 30-day supply of food and water. However, in a panic, the shelves and coolers in those same grocery stores will be stripped clean in 48 hours. I witnessed this in Virginia when a named snowstorm was going to hit our area in 2016. The local Kroger’s, down the street from my apartment, was a chaotic mess in two hours. You would have thought the zombie apocalypse was upon us. My oldest son was with me in the store. I pointed out the barren bread shelves to him. I told him that this is what happens when people fail to prepare. They become very selfish and animalistic towards others when they are fearful of their mortality. Therefore, the storage of essential necessities becomes crucial in an urban survival zone. The Wilderness Survival Approach The wilderness survival approach is the oldest of the methods. Wilderness or frontier survival is as old as humanity from the Otzi Iceman to the modern bushcrafter. As its name indicates, wilderness survival refers to surviving in an outdoor environment. There are different kinds of survival considerations for various outdoor activities. Wilderness survival preparation may be as sophisticated as a modern ultralight backpacking kit to an extended hunting trip into the Alaskan backcountry. It can also be as simplistic as employing the survival skills and tools of the Native Americans or the Mountain Men of the early 1800s. The Uniqueness Of The Wilderness Approach The outdoor environment offers its own set of unique characteristics influencing survival and preparedness. Outdoorsmen must be able to survive and sustain themselves in the field for extended periods in remote locations. There is nothing “remote” about the urban environment. Moreover, wilderness survival requires one to carry all of the survival necessities within the limitations of your pack, pack animal, or both. Furthermore, the wilderness survival approach implies being able to access and create essentials from natural surroundings. For example, flint napping a knife blade or spear point is not necessary for an urban context. Some Observations About The Wilderness Environment The main difference in wilderness survival kits and those for the urban environment are the tools. Those going into the outdoors need a fixed blade knife as their primary tool. Urban survival kits can function effectively with only a multitool. A fixed blade knife is a core item for bushcrafters and hunters. Ferro rods and strikers are the tools of choice for making fires in the backcountry. Whereas, urban survival kits usually feature a Bic Lighter. Thus, there are some differences in kit components to enable urban or wilderness survival. Some Final Thoughts Is it urban or wilderness? Your location and type of survival concern will dictate your requirements. However, for those living in the transition survival zones, it is prudent to take a hybrid or blended approach of both urban and survival techniques and kit mentality. Sigma 3 Survival School offers a great blend of both urban and wilderness survival training courses. It is best to avail yourself of that training if you are able. You may have to traverse multiple survival zones to get to safety during a mandatory evacuation. Therefore, it is wise to gain as much field time, formal training, and individual practice in both urban and wilderness survival skills within your budget and time limits. These will enhance your chances of a positive outcome in your survival situation. Further Reading SAS Urban Survival Handbook Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege: 1942-1943 Logavina Street: Life and Death in a Sarajevo Neighborhood Out of the Mountains: The Coming Age of the Urban Guerrilla Bushcraft: Outdoor Skills and Wilderness Survival The Buschcraft Bible Build the Perfect Bug Out Survival Skills: Your Guide to Emergency Wilderness Survival Survival: U.S. Army Field Manual (FM 21-76) The post Are You Ready? Urban And Wilderness Survival appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  9. Can you stay alive outdoors by assessing risks? The summer outdoor season sees an increase in reports about disappearances and accidents. A recent report from California discusses the disappearance of an experienced hiker at a campsite in the Bristlecone Pine Forest. She was later found alive after four days. The report reveals that she had to flee her location due to a threatening person. Another story relates the discovery of the body of a missing person on the Snake River in Wyoming. He was working at a KOA campsite. Outdoor activities can be great experiences. However, outdoor activities also have inherent risks. You should develop a risk assessment and reduction plan before you go on a wilderness adventure. The following principles can help you build your risk mitigation plan. 1. Assess the level of wilderness experience and field skills of yourself and others It is terrific to have a desire to spend time outdoors. There is an increasing number of people heading to the wilderness to hunt, hike, camp, or fish. The growing popularity of survival-related reality television programs and the rising interest in survival and preparedness are motivating people to get outdoors. However, the reality of being in the wilderness is different from how it is portrayed in the mass media. There is a danger of overconfidence in one’s abilities. It is prudent to be realistic in assessing the level of wilderness experience and field skills of yourself and those in your group. The less wilderness experience and skills that one has should be an indicator that they are a high risk to themselves and others. Therefore, it is imperative to take a partner with you into the outdoors. Your partner should be more experienced and have more field skills than you to compliment your weaknesses. As a matter of safety, you should never go into the wilderness by yourself regardless of how skilled and experienced you are with the outdoors. 2. Know the level of health and physical fitness of yourself and others. It is vital to know your level of health and physical fitness. Health and physical fitness play an important role in determining the kinds of activity and locations that one visits. For example, people with high blood pressure might have limitations as to the types of trails that they can trek on a backpacking adventure. 3. Understand the natural or man-made dangers of the area of activity One of the common characteristics of negative experiences in the outdoors is a lack of awareness of the risks. More specifically, there seems to be a lack of knowledge of the natural and man-made dangers in the area of activity. One type of natural hazard involves predatory animals, such as mountain lions or bears. Other inherent threats are those relating to the terrain such as cliffs, bodies of water, areas of deadfall, or unstable ground. Man-made dangers are those pertaining to human activity. These can comprise logging areas, areas of construction, or even previous criminal activity. 4. Analyze the local weather and weather anomalies of the area of activity Weather is a contributor to outdoor risks. There are reports of sudden fog, rain, or dropping of temperatures even in the summer months in some locations. It must be remembered that some local weather patterns cannot be found in a national or local forecast. The people who live near the area of your outdoor activity can provide useful information on local weather activity such as afternoon thundershowers. Analyzing the local weather traits will help make decisions about what to put in your backpack, such as rain gear or a light fleece jacket. 5. Identify the level of access to emergency help in the area of activity Sometimes people, who go outdoors, do not take into account the availability of emergency help. It is essential to have a good understanding of what kind of emergency help is available. Additionally, it is crucial to know how to access emergency help in your planned area of activity. The importance of knowing how to contact emergency help is a critical part of your outdoor planning. For example, one of the areas near me does not have a large number of park rangers. They tell you when you come into the park that most emergency help will be by airlift. They do not have the personnel or transportation available to come to your aid if you call for help. Thus, an expensive life flight to a local hospital awaits, should you dial for help. That kind of information influences your activity and what you have in your gear. Some wilderness areas have no cell phone access. How will you get help in an emergency? It is recommended that you develop a first-responder contact card. This card should have contact information for park rangers, first responders, and area hospitals. You should include emergency radio channels on the card if you are carrying a handheld ham radio two-way transceiver with you. Final Thoughts Risk reduction is an important skill to develop and exercise for those who love the outdoors. Your risk reduction plan has its limitations. However, without one, you may find your activity being less than enjoyable. Once you have identified the risks for your planned wilderness adventure, then develop and implement measures to reduce that risk. One of the best techniques to consider for risk reduction measures is the PACE plan. Additionally, your risk reduction plan should take into account the kind of activity (Mission), local and area dangers (Enemy), time of day, month or day (Time), the people involved (Troops), location (Terrain), and accesses to emergency help (Civilian Considerations). Once you have your risk mitigation plan complete, give a copy to whomever, you will be making your communication checks while you are outdoors. The post Can You Stay Alive? Assessing Outdoor Risks appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  10. Are there effective one tool options? The answer is that it depends on the intended use of your cutting instrument. Are bushcraft knives better than multitools? Are multitools better than bushcraft knives? It is essential to ensure that you have the appropriate tools for functioning effectively and efficiently in the outdoors. Most survival experts advise taking some type of cutting instrument with you into the field, such as a fixed blade knife. Comprehensive packing lists for backpackers and hunters consist of both a fixed blade knife and a multitool. However, what if you are limited to just one cutting option? The Bushcraft Knife Overview The bushcraft knife or an equivalent fixed blade knife is the tool of choice for most outdoorsman. The description of these knives are the one tool option to ensure survival and sustainment in the field. There are specific characteristics that define a quality bushcraft knife. Those features are as follows: Length of the Blade: 5-8 inches Type of Steel: D2 or 1095 HC Blade Spine: 90°, sharp-edged Coating of the Blade: None These features can be negotiable such as the case with the Morakniv® knives. The purpose of these knives is to allow a person to conduct various field tasks. The bushcraft knife blade is short enough to do small jobs like process firewood or carve traps. However, the blade is long enough to adequately process game or to function as a self-defense weapon, such as a spear. The Multitool Overview The multitool has grown in sophistication over the years. Most people’s first exposure to a multitool was either a Swiss Army Knife or Leatherman® PST. The origin of the multitool concept is with the pocket knife. The addition of multiple blades, can openers, or bottle openers as features on pocket knives reflect the multitool concept. The Boy Scout Pocket Knife was an early example of these kinds of pocket knives. However, contemporary multitools feature pliers, folding handles, with various tools that tuck into the handles. A folding blade and saw blade are often part of the modern multitool. Leatherman® and Gerber® are the largest manufacturers of contemporary multitools. The purpose of the modern multitool is to function as a compact toolbox for the handyman, mechanic, electrician, or other skilled laborers. Anglers and hunters saw that the contemporary multitool was an asset for their needs and began to use them. Thus, the multitool entered the outdoor world. The favorite features on a multitool for anglers and hunters are the pliers and knife blade. Yet, is the multitool a good one tool option for field survival? Bushcraft Knife verses A Multitool In The Field Processing Fish A recent experience of mine revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the single tool option concept. My son and I went fishing as part of a church activity in the Lincoln National Forest in New Mexico. We caught five small to average length trout. We had to cook them since we did not bring a cooler to keep them in for transportation back to the house. The cooler that I intended to take was unusable, and I did not have time to get another one before the trip. I did not have to gut the fish because the folks running the location did it for us as a complimentary courtesy for fishing in their private pond. As an experiment, I used my multitool to prepare the fish for cooking. I had my Leatherman® Sidekick® on me, so I proceeded to prepare the fish for cooking. My original intent was to fillet them to avoid my son having to eat any bones accidentally. That turned out to be a useless effort and was advised by a more experienced gentleman just to wrap them in aluminum foil and place them on the grill. This was a concept that was familiar with, so I finished preparing the other fish. After they were finished cooking, I ran into another issue, how do you effectively take the meat off and leave the bones? I decided to peel the meat off after cutting the heads and tails off of fish. The saw blade on the multitool was used to cut the heads and tails off. It quickly became evident why anglers have a filet knife in their tackle boxes. A multitool is not the most efficient tool to process fish of average size except for gutting them. Processing Game A more recent observation also reinforced the practical nature of a bushcraft knife as a one tool option over a multitool. The latest episode of the television show, Alone, shows a contestant with hunting experience attempting to process a full-sized moose with only a multitool. He successfully killed the moose with his bow and arrow. He later comments while processing the moose that he regretted not having his fixed blade knife on him. Most hunters take a game processing kit with them into the field. These kits have various blades for cutting, chopping, and skinning, as well as sawing bones. A multitool seems to have some of these features. However, the contestant quickly realized that the job of processing that kind of game with a multitool was a daunting effort. It took the contestant six hours to process the moose with his multitool and transport the meat to his bivouac location. Furthermore, as I was watching this unfold, it brought to remembrance some things that I have read or heard by outdoorsman about the bushcraft knife and its uses. Here is an excellent example of why frontiersman, trappers, and mountain men had the type of knives that they carried in the field. They found themselves having to process deer, elk, moose, or bear after hunting them. A two or three-inch knife blade or saw blade was not going to get the job accomplished. The contemporary outdoorsman is no different. Thus, as a one tool option, it would seem that the bushcraft knife is preferable to the multitool. Some Final Thoughts The bushcraft knife or the multitool as the one tool option? Which is best? The answer still comes down to what is your intended use for a cutting instrument. Most outdoor experts will advise carrying at least two or three kinds of cutting tools: a fixed blade knife, a folding knife, and a multitool. The folding knife and multitool are used for smaller tasks like fashioning fishing hooks, carving traps, or making primitive weapons. The fixed blade is used for the more significant functions beyond the campsite. However, if you are limited to just one of those three, a quality bushcraft knife seems to be the choice. The proper tool for the task is the best option of all. Yet, some people find themselves separated from their gear and only have what they are carrying on their belts. Keeping your fixed blade knife attached to your belt is a sure technique for having a knife when you need it. Thru-hikers, ultralight, and multiday backpackers tend to not carry things on the belts of their trousers or shorts. This is done for the comfort and to avoid getting sores rubbed on their body by the friction of the pack waist belt rubbing against their body and things attached to their belts. It would seem that a drop-leg approach to carrying a bushcraft knife might be an option in this scenario. Nevertheless, a quality bushcraft knife is the best one tool option for wilderness survival considerations. Therefore, shop around and find the bushcraft knife that works best for your needs. The post Effective One Tool Options? Bushcraft Knife verses Multitool appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  11. How to organize your emergency bag can be a daunting task. The building of a 72-hour emergency bag is the basic starting point for most preppers and survivalists. There are many opinions on the definitions of the various configurations for your pack or bag. A working definition for an emergency bag is one that has to keep you sustained for up to 72 hours in an emergency situation. The most common use for the 72-hour bag is in an evacuation situation due to a weather emergency. Some people call these the “Bug Out Bag” or BOB. Nevertheless, the emergency bag is a key part of your prepping strategy for any emergency scenario. In this article, I will discuss a way to understand your bag as a system of systems as you think about how to organize your loadout. 1. The Emergency Bag The first consideration in the system-of-systems approach is the backpack or bag itself. The bag will contain the other aspects of your emergency planning. These other aspects are the subsystems within the bag, such as your first-aid kit. Most experts advise building the smaller systems or kits and then find a bag or pack to contain them. It is important to remember that you will not be able to pack for every little emergency nuance. The bag or pack must be durable in its construction but also adaptable in its use. For example, a good bag or pack will be able to be used for most packing considerations and employed in most emergency scenarios. My article on six essential features of a quality backpack will be helpful to finding a decent pack. 2. The Tool System As we discuss the subsystems of the bag, one of the most important systems is the tool system. A basic tool system consists of a fixed blade, a folder, a multitool, and some wood processing tool like an ax or saw. However, your particular situation may not call for the use of all of those tools. A quality multitool and folding saw may be sufficient. Your emergency bag should contain some level of a tool system or kit. An urban or suburban environment may require some breaching or lock picking tools being added to your tool system. 3. The Fire Making System The second subsystem in your emergency bag should be your fire-making system or kit. This kit should have at least three ways to start an emergency fire. Most fire kits contain at least a butane lighter and a ferro rod. However, there are many with stormproof matches, magnesium rods, or flint-and-steel items. One of the best fire making systems on the market is the Sigma 3 Fire Kit. Moreover, tinder of some kind should be in your fire-making system, such as wet cubes or jellied-cotton balls. There are many options on the market for both a source of flame and tinder. In the end, your emergency pack should have a fire making system. 4. The Water Procurement System Another important system in your emergency bag should be water procurement system or kit. Sometimes these are called water processing kits. The water procurement system should enable you to collect and sanitize water. There are several ways to address these requirements. A basic water procurement system will have a filter straw and water treatment tablets. The water collection items can consist of a water bottle or canteen with a nesting cup or plastic bags. One of the best water procurement systems to consider is the Sigma 3 Water Kit. 5. The Food Procurement System The obtaining of food during an emergency is vital to staying healthy and alert. The recent earthquakes in California illustrate the importance of keeping food and water available during an emergency. This concept is also true of your emergency bag. An immediate evacuation order is no time to start thinking about food and water. It should already be part of your system. However, what happens when your Mountain House, Cliff Bars, or self-made food bags are consumed? It is important to think about the kinds of food procurement and processing methods to integrate into your emergency bag. Some simple traps or trapping items are good considerations. If fishing is available in your area, then a simple backpacking fishing pole and small fishing kit are excellent additions to your system. 6. The Shelter System Cover and shelter items are important to your overall emergency bag system. There are many videos on YouTube that demonstrate some options for cover and shelter. One of the best cover and shelter systems to integrate into your emergency bag are the Warbonnet Hammock and Tarp systems. They are compact and durable. However, the SOL Emergency Shelter is a good budget-friendly option as long as it is combined with other shelter items, such as a tarp or a GoreTex® bivy sack. Additionally, never forget that your clothing items are part of your shelter system. Thus, keep a change of clothes along with the appropriate seasonal outerwear in your emergency bag considerations. 7. The Sleeping System The sleeping system works in conjunction with your shelter and cover system. An emergency sleep system should contain a compact sleeping bag, a sleeping bag liner or bivy sack, and a sleeping pad. I, personally, keep a U.S. Army poncho liner on-hand in my bag as part of my sleep system. One of the best items to consider for your sleeping system is the U.S. Army Gore-Tex bivy sack from the Military Modular Sleep System (MSS). These will fit over most mummy-style sleeping bags. On the other hand, be careful about the sleeping pad that you consider. The self-inflating or inflatable mats are great for general use. However, they tend to tear and get pinholes over time, rendering them unusable. The U.S. Army sleeping pad is a good consideration for emergency purposes. It is reliable, durable, and can be used as a hasty splinting device if necessary. 8. The Communications System A reliable communication system is a must for your emergency bag. A good emergency communication system employs both passive and active communication methods. Most emergency bags contain at least an all-weather AM-FM radio, a signal mirror, and a blaze orange bandana. However, those with Ham Radio licenses will carry a handheld Ham Radio in their kit. Communication items vary from person-to-person along with regional or local considerations. Additionally, keeping some form of power such as a power bank or solar recharger should be in this system. The important thing to remember is to have some capability to signal for help in an emergency. 9. The First Aid System One of the most important systems that you can have in your emergency bag is a first aid system or medical system. Most first aid systems consist of an individual first aid kit (IFAK), a tourniquet, and a trauma kit. However, it is important to know what you will need for your personal and family as you create or purchase items for your first aid system. It is crucial to get first aid training to be able to render medical aid more effectively to someone with your kit. 10. Hygiene System The hygiene system is sometimes overlooked in some checklists that can be found on the internet. There is more to personal hygiene than keeping wet wipes in your bag. The U.S. and USMC require soldiers and marines carry personal hygiene items in their field packs. A basic personal hygiene system contains a razor, bar of soap, shaving cream, shampoo, and a washcloth. My kit consists of a disposable razor, and the following travel-sized items: a bar of soap, shaving cream, shampoo, toothbrush, mouth wash, and toothpaste. The additional items that I carry in my hygiene kit are finger and toenail clippers, dental floss, hand sanitizer, and wet wipes. Most of the hygiene items that work best in a hygiene system are in the travel section of the local Walmart, Target, or Walgreens. It is advisable to keep some flushable wipes or a roll of toilet paper in your bag. 11. The Maintenance System Another aspect of packing an emergency bag that is often overlooked is a maintenance and repair system. Gorilla tape or duct tape and a multitool can be part of the maintenance and repair system. However, most military maintenance and repair systems consist of a travel-size sewing kit with scissors. Some people recommend only carrying a heavy gauge canvas needle. What they do not tell you is that this needle is used in conjunction with braided fishing line, Kevlar string, paracord inner strands, or bank line strands. In essence, the carrying of a single canvas needle implies other sewing items are part of your loadout. 12. Security System Many people are interested in forms of personal security items such as firearms or non-lethal personal protection items. In an emergency evacuation situation, personal protection is a crucial part of emergency planning. The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina demonstrates how vital it is to keep some form of personal security on you at all times. Thus, do not forget to add into your emergency bag some personal security options that are in compliance with local and federal laws. Final Thoughts Your emergency bag will help keep you sustained for a short period in an emergency. It will keep you going if you have to evacuate to an emergency shelter. There are other items to consider for your bag, such as cash and bartering items. Other things to consider are personal entertainment or morale items such a Bible, a book, or iPod. You will not be able to carry everything that you think you might need in your bag. Therefore, be both strategic and tactical about what items that you include in your system-of-system approach. Furthermore, be intentional and realistic about what you put in your bag. A well thought out emergency bag will be an asset during a crisis. The post How To Organize Your Emergency Bag appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  12. How to build an emergency fishing kit is important to outdoor survival? The spring and summer fishing season is in full swing. Many people are heading outdoors to enjoy camping, fishing, or hiking. A personal emergency kit is a critical item to have with you while outdoors. However, most advice about individual emergency kits gives little insight into a fishing kit. Trapping small game seems to be more prominent in personal survival kits than fishing. In this article, I will discuss how I made my emergency fishing kit. The emergency kit that I have developed for myself is one that works for me and is by no means the apex of all emergency fishing kits. It is functional and practical based on my needs. The kit is small so that it will fit in my pocket emergency survival kit. Moreover, it is tailored for the kinds of fish that are available in the areas that hike and backpack here in the southwest. You can take these principles and build your kit that is tailored to your outdoor context. 1. Container The container that I use to put the contents of my emergency fishing kit is a jewelry Ziploc bag that is 3 inches by 2 inches. These can be purchased at places like Hobby Lobby or Michael’s Arts and Crafts. If you wish to make your emergency fishing kit more comprehensive, then the Plano fishing accessory box or a surplus U.S. Army M258 Individual Decon Kit Container are great options to consider. As you think about the kind of container for your emergency fishing kit, there a couple of criteria to ponder when making this decision. First, is your fishing kit going to be part of a more significant loadout, such as being in a separate pouch in your backpack? Second, do you want your fishing kit to be part of your emergency kit? For me, I already carry a fishing kit in my backpack. I wanted a fishing kit small enough to fit in my emergency kit as part of my back up option. 2. Fishhooks The fishhooks that I use are three #4 Snell hooks by Eagle Claw®. I secure the hooks with transparent scotch tape. The line is then wrapped around itself into a small enough loop that it fits in the bag. My reasoning for using these hooks is because, in a field environment, my fingertips tend to get chapped pretty good. These hooks are more comfortable to employ with the use of a barrel swivel with a safety snap than trying to make a fisherman’s knot with sore fingertips. The key is getting the rod prepped before my fingers start to get chapped. Thus, in an emergency scenario, an essential task would be to secure a wood branch suitable for a fishing pole and get it set up as quickly as possible. In case, a pole cannot be obtained, then setting up a trotline is a second option. One optional consideration for hooks are the jig head hooks. These are special weighted hooks designed to be used in conjunction with soft bait lures such as worms or grubs. However, it is best not to get too fancy with your emergency fishing kit. If you choose to set up your kit to include lures, I would recommend only putting one or two jig head hooks of ¼ oz with a couple of grubs. 3. Fishing Line A good fishing line is a key to an effective fishing kit. I use 100 feet of the 65-pound test, braided line by Power Pro®. It must be remembered that survival fishing is different than sport fishing. Braided fishing line is the best for survival purposes because of its durability and the multitude of uses this kind of line gives a person in the field. My fishing line is wrapped around a plastic floss sewing bobbin. A lighter test line is an option, but this is what I use in my kit. 4. Leader Line One consideration to think about adding into your kit is a leader line to complement your fishing line and hooks. A nine to twelve-inch steel leader line is an average length for most fishing needs. However, for my kit, I use the 8-inch micro-leader from Eagle Claw® with a 12-pound test rating in my fishing kit. 5. Sinkers Sinkers in your emergency fishing kit give it the ability to set up different rigs based on your level of fishing aptitude. The weights to have in your emergency kit are the split shot sinkers. I have these in my kit because they are easily placed on the fishing line by just pinching them closed. There are no fancy knots to tie as with more heavier sinkers such as a swivel sinker. Split shot sinkers do not take up much space in my container. Therefore, I put three to four split shot sinkers in my emergency fishing kit. 6. Barrel Swivels w/Safety Snap A barrel swivel with a safety snap is a versatile item in your fishing kit. It will allow you to conserve your fishing line by letting you replace hooks without restringing your pole. They will also allow you to set up different rigs without cutting up your line. 7. Lures Lures are an interesting topic of discussion when it comes to personal emergency fishing kits. There are two basic categories of lures: soft lures and hard lures. The soft lures work best for small fishing kits like mine, such as the 2-inch grubs by Berkeley® or the Storm® WildEye™ Swim Shad. However, some of the hard lures are small enough to be a great option to consider, such as the Rapala® 1-inch minnow. The question of using fly lures for fly fishing comes up for an emergency fishing kit. Fly fishing is a special type of angling technique. If you are experienced with fly fishing and regularly catch fish with this technique, then it would not hurt to include a couple of fly lures in your kit. However, for those not proficient in fly fishing, it is recommended that you do not include fly lures in your kit. 8. Bobber Some premade emergency kits include floats or bobbers. However, having a float or bobber is not essential to getting the most out of your survival fishing kit. If you want to build a kit with a float or bobber, then the small, ¾ inch snap on ball floats would be sufficient. However, if your fishing rig requires a float, some options to consider would be a cork stopper for bottles. Bottle corks come in various sizes and can be purchased for a few dollars at a craft or hobby store. Furthermore, if you need a float for your rig, you can fashion one from any piece of wood found in the field. Final Thoughts The summer months in the outdoors brings its unique set of survival concerns. Those living in areas where freshwater fishing is plentiful understand the value of angling for food. Backpackers and hikers also enjoy a good time fishing while on the trail. An emergency fishing kit is a must for the outdoors. A person that becomes lost or separated from their gear will have a survival edge with a small fishing kit in their emergency kit. Thus, as you reflect on the suggestions above, keep in mind your needs and level of experience. Therefore, experiment and tailor your kit to your needs. The post How To Build An Emergency Fishing Kit appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  13. Excellent ways to effectively manage your cordage are easily available. The effectively management of cordage is an ongoing problem for most people. Cordage can become tangled and knotted even with the best of intentions of not allowing to happen. The problem exists regardless if you have sewing string or climbing rope. I have experienced the frustration of attempting to keep my cordage neatly wound and secured only for it become a mess after several uses. However, in this article I will discuss some tips and tricks that will help you effectively manage your cordage. Sewing String to Parachute Cord Management 1. Stainless Steel Sewing Bobbins Stainless steel sewing bobbins are a wonderful way to store your sewing string, braided fishing line, or Kevlar™ line in your emergency kit. Sewing bobbins also come in plastic. Plastic bobbins are not recommended because they are not durable in a field environment. Plastic also has the quality of drying out and becoming brittle in hot dry climates. Thus, the stainless steel sewing bobbins are the best way to effectively manage the cordage in your emergency kit like twine, strings, or fishing line. Advantages The primary advantage of a stainless steel sewing bobbin is that it gives a compact and durable way to manage your small diameter cordage like braided fishing line. Stainless steel is the best material for field use because of its corrosion resistance. Another advantage of using this type of bobbin is easy of storage in smaller containers like Altoid® tins or small pouches for your personal emergency kit. Disadvantages The most glaring disadvantage of using the stainless steel bobbin is the limited amount of cordage that can be stored on them. Thus, the stainless steel bobbin an ideal option for effectively managing your cordage such as braided fishing line, jute twine, or sewing thread. 2. Plastic Floss Bobbins Plastic floss sewing bobbins are thin plastic squares that on which small amounts of sewing sting are stored. Most people have seen the paper bobbins that come in the complementary sewing kits given by some hotels. The plastic bobbins work well for small personal emergency kits. I use these to wrap my braided fishing line in my emergency fishing kit. I also have wrapped my 25 feet of Kevlar™ cord on these bobbins. The use of the plastic floss bobbins works well for storing in my EDC personal emergency kit in my ALokSak® bag. Advantages The primary advantage of using the plastic floss bobbin is compact storage. As stated above, plastic is not the best material for the field. However, for storage in small containers or pouches, these are an effective way to manage your string-type cordage. Disadvantages The obvious disadvantage of the plastic floss bobbin is its limited capacity to hold cordage. Another disadvantage of the plastic floss bobbin is that it will crack or break easy if handled in a harsh manner. Yet, despite their disadvantages, the plastic floss bobbin is a great alternative of effectively managing your cordage. 3. Spool Tool™ The managing of your parachute cordage can be an especially aggravating effort. The TricornE™ company in San Diego, California has an innovative device for storing up to 100 feet of parachute cord. It is called the Spool Tool™. This is a hard plastic device that features a holder for a Bic® Mini lighter and a cord cutter. I use one of these to store my paracord in my backpack. These are great for people who have not mastered the art of coiling and tying off paracord for storage. Advantages The main advantage of the Spool Tool™ is the ease of storing up to 100 feet of paracord. Another advantage of this device is that it has a cutting device and fire making capability. These features make the Spool Tool™ a versatile item to consider for your pack loadout. Disadvantages A disadvantage of the Spool Tool™ is that it can be bulky with 100 feet of paracord. Therefore, 75 feet of paracord works best with this item. A second disadvantage of the Spool Tool™ is that replacing the razor cord cutting blade can be tricky in the field. The two small screws that hold the blade cover and blade in place can be lost if one is not careful. 4. Atwood Tactical Rope Dispenser One of the more innovative products to come along for storing parachute cord is the Tactical Rope Dispenser by the Atwood Rope Manufacturing Company in Ohio. This is a practical item to consider when storing your paracord. As with the Spool Tool™, the Tactical Rope Dispenser is another great way to effectively manage your cordage. Advantages The Tactical Rope Dispenser is advantageous for its ease of storing and dispensing parachute cord. The TRD features a built-in cord cutter, similar to the Spool Tool™. Moreover, it also comes with a belt clip and small notches for holding the loose end of the cord. It is also easy to refill the spool with more parachute cord. Disadvantages One of the disadvantages of the Tactical Rope Dispenser is that it has a limited storage capacity of 50 feet. 50 feet of paracord is sufficient for most backpackers and hikers. However, those who spend more time outdoors usually need up to 100 feet of cord. Another disadvantage of this product is that refilling the spool can be difficult in the field. Thus, it is best to purchase two Tactical Rope Dispensers. One for regular use and one for a back up in case you run out of cord in the field. Climbing Rope Management The next level of cordage to consider managing is climbing rope. It is sometimes called assault line or repelling rope. Some experts in the field of emergency preparedness recommend keeping 50 to 100 feet of climbing rope. However, employing climbing and repelling techniques in an emergency should only be accomplished by those experienced in those skill sets. However, methods to effectively manage rope-type cordage is a consideration for some. Therefore, the following tips are given to help with managing climbing rope. 1. The Alpine Coil The alpine coil is one of the more common techniques for managing climbing rope. This technique also can be used with parachute cord. The technique is a simple coiling and then wrapping for security as illustrated in the picture. The alpine coil also can result in the rope looking like a figure eight with a wrapped middle. There are many sources on the internet and on YouTube® that demonstrate how to employ this technique. Advantage The alpine coil has the advantage of being simple. There are no complicated knotting sequences to remember with its use. As a result, the alpine coil allows for ease of storage on the outside of one’s backpack by securing it with a carabiner. Thus, this technique should be used by those just learning rope management. Disadvantage The disadvantage with the alpine coil is that it does not totally resolve the tangling concern after the wrap is loosed. A climbing rope can tend to kink and coil on itself when it is being stretched out for employment, which results in tangling. Therefore, care should be taken when unraveling the rope to prevent tangling. 2. The Butterfly Coil The butterfly coil is a rope management technique a little more complicated than the alpine coil. However, this technique works best with longer lengths of rope, usually over 100 feet. The butterfly coil allows the rope to be carried on the outside of a pack or on someone’s back as illustrated in the picture. A rope coiled and wrapped in this manner will look like there is a loop securing the rope at the top. As with the alpine coil, one can find this technique being demonstrated on YouTube®. This rope management technique is for those more experienced climbers who use this method regularly for rope management. Advantages A major advantage of the butterfly technique is that it does resolve the tangling concern. As the rope is being coiled it employs an s-style back-and-forth fold. This helps the rope to be easily employed with out tangling after the securing wrap is loosed. Disadvantage The biggest disadvantage of the butterfly coil method is that it requires some practice to get a rope correctly secured in this manner. The initial moves of the coil are simple. However, when the rope is going to be secured by the butterfly knot, there are some more hand movements necessary to complete the technique. Therefore, this management method should only be used by those after they have practiced it enough to be proficient with it. Final Thoughts This article has been a little more lengthy than normal. Yet, it is hoped that it has been informative. The topic of cordage management is one that will continue to occupy discussions around the outdoor and prepping world. The importance of storing cordage and keeping it from getting tangled is a concern for all who love the outdoors. Thus, it is my desire that this article will motivate further thought on this topic. The post Excellent Ways To Effectively Manage Your Cordage appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  14. Have you ever heard about how to create a tactical land navigation kit? Land navigation is critical to emergency wilderness survival. The U. S. Army has a vested interest in the vital skill of moving on the battlefield. Navigation over familiar and unfamiliar terrain in all types of weather conditions during daylight or evening hours makes our military a formidable force. An essential element of this task is training individual soldiers, Commissioned Officers, Warrant Officers, and Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) to be proficient at land navigation with a map, compass, and map protractor. Our sergeants prohibit the use of GPS devices during individual training on land navigation. One of the techniques that I picked up in my military career was to have a personal land navigation kit in your rucksack as part of your packing list. It was during my time at Fort Benning, Georgia, that this technique first came to my awareness. Leaders are to be ready at all times to plot accurate map coordinates, mark accurate azimuths, and calculate and covert map and compass azimuths at all times. Of course, some did that better than others, as the old puns demonstrate regarding “butter bars” and land navigation. I still have my land navigation kit. It continues to have the original items that I used over the years. In this article, I will discuss how you can create your own Land Navigation Kit. The Pouch Spec-Ops Brand® Pack Rat Drop-In Organizer The starting point for creating your land navigation kit is to purchase a tactical administrative pouch. The one that I use is the Spec-Ops Brand® Pack Rat Drop-In Organizer pouch. It has been around for a while and is now only offered in two colors: Black and Multicam®. The one that I used was initially in olive drab, and then I changed it out for the ACU digital camouflage version. This pouch is a little bulky for the average outdoorsman. However, it holds all of the items that I will identify for the packing list. Description: 10” high, 7.25” wide x 3” thick. Total Capacity: 217.5 cubic inches. The Packing List 1. Staedtler® Lumocolor® Permanent Markers, Super Fine Point The Staedtler company makes the most excellent tools and equipment for draftsman, architects, and engineers. These markers are unique for using with laminated topographic maps. The recommendation for using permanent markers is that the ink will not run or bleed when it gets wet. Thus, this makes these markers and valuable tool for marking maps in rainy or wet conditions outdoors. The super fine tip is excellent for making small marks and notes on a laminated map. For example, if you find a stream that is not on your map, the blue super fine tip marker can be used to mark it. You can also make small notes and labels near key terrain features as you navigate over your chosen route. 2. Staedtler® Lumocolor® Permanent Markers, Fine Point These fine point markers from Staedtler are superb for making larger notes or markings on your map. These markers are great for marking roads or trails or other larger items on your map. The eight-count pack has all of the colors usually associated with maps. The fine-point and super fine-point markers are valuable writing instruments for your land navigation kit. Note: Staedtler also makes an alcohol marker for removing lines and marks made with these pens. Thus, you can purchase this item if you are going to use permanent markers. Additionally, some people like to use hand sanitizer to remove lines, markings, or notes from their laminated maps. 3. Staedtler® Lumocolor® Permanent Marker 350 Wide Chisel Tip The Staedtler broad-tip makers are great for marking tactical or operational boundary lines on a map. However, there is little application for tactical markings on a civilian map. So why the wide-tip markers? These markers are a great back up in case you need to make notes on objects like rocks if you become lost in the wilderness. The waterproof qualities of these markers allow them to be used as an alternative to the Sharpie® Industrial Permanent Markers. 4. MGRS-UTM Map Protractor Map protractors are a must if you have a topographic map. My kit has typically at least three protractors. My kit has at least three protractors stored in the interior pocket of the pouch. You should always carry extra map protractors. If you are not sure about which ones to purchase, check out my previous article on map protractors. 5. ACCO® Banker’s Clasps Banker’s clasps are used to hold your map to a map board. Some people still use map boards. These are exceptional items to help keep your map or other things in place. An alternative to these clasps is paper binder clips. Paper binder clips have other uses besides holding a map to a map board. However, I used the clasps during my military career, and they were great for my land navigation needs. 6. Westcott® Metal Ball Bearing Compass with Pencil A pencil compass has limited applications outside of military map use. They are useful items for drawing arcs from a known point. The military use for a pencil compass is to identify distances and ranges from a known location, like your patrol base. However, there are a few instances where these would be helpful to land navigation for civilians. The most likely use would be to draw a communications arc for your handheld radio (HHR) from your bivouac site or bugout location on your map. Another use for the pencil compass is to help determine the range for line-of-site (LOS) considerations. Additionally, the golf pencil on the compass can be a backup writing utensil in an emergency. 7. Zebra® M-701 Stainless Steel Mechanical Pencil A Zebra mechanical pencil has its best use on a non-laminated paper map. The permanent markers mentioned above will smudge or bleed through a paper map. The mechanical pencil is useful for drawing accurate azimuth lines and plotting grid points. It is also helpful for making marks or notes on the map as you use it. 8. Zebra® F-701 Ballpoint Stainless Steel Retractable Pen The Zebra® pens are the best on the market for general use considerations. As with the mechanical pencil, the ballpoint pen is best for making notes and lines on a paper map. It also can be an emergency writing device should you need one. The other advantage of a ballpoint pen is that the ink is waterproof. A good alternative for the Zebra® is the Skilcraft U.S. Government pen. 9. Sharpie® Accent Pocket-Style Fluorescent Yellow Highlighters The next item in the land navigation kit is a yellow highlighter. The highlighter is a versatile item. It not only highlights important or critical information on your map, but it also glows in the dark when a blue-filtered light shines on the marked item (Tscherne, “A Map Marker Lighter,” Ranger Digest No. VII, Paradise, CA: Loose Cannon, 2017, 117). Incidentally, this technique does work. I tried it by highlighting something on a note card that I had laying around my office and using the blue filter on my L-light flashlight. Final Comments A land navigation kit is a great item to consider adding to your loadout. The kit discussed in this article is a little bulky for most outdoorsman. However, I would recommend that you use this article to come up with your own user-friendly land navigation kit. The items in this kit have been used in a multitude of environments and scenarios. They work for their intended purposes and help make the task of map reading and land navigation more efficient. Therefore, enjoy experimenting with your own personalized land navigation kit. The post How To Create A Tactical Land Navigation Kit appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
  15. Act now! 3 amazing learning opportunities at Sigma 3 Survival School. Have you ever wanted to know how to establish your own successful survival school? Maybe, you have wanted to know more about wild edible and medicinal plants? Perhaps, you have desired to know more about survival but could not attend a full survival course? Now, the leadership of Sigma 3 Survival School is making available three great learning opportunities for you to improve your survival knowledge and business understanding. 1. The Outdoor Business Mentorship Program The Outdoor Business Mentorship Program is a 6-month long certification program. You will live in the outdoors with the owner of the school and the lead instructor of SIGMA 3 Survival School, Rob Allen, and Josh Hamlin. Moreover, this learning opportunity will teach you everything you need to know about how to build a successful outdoors business and build an online following! Also, you will complete our 45 Day Survival Instructor Program while you are in the program. Additionally, you will help run the day to day operations of SIGMA 3! Consequently, this learning opportunity will show you how to operate a successful outdoors business. Thus, by the time you complete the program, you will have a comprehensive set of business skills that will enable you to start your own successful company or open your own SIGMA 3 Satellite location. What is the reason for the success of SIGMA 3, where others have failed? Here are a few reasons: Vast experience with social media and building an online following. Understanding Search Engine Optimization and how to get found on Google! Making high-quality YouTube® videos, DVD’s, and other video production skills. Understanding how to manipulate search algorithms and get more social media attention. For free! Using Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube® to your advantage to provide cheap traffic to your website. The owner has created numerous successful companies and can give you all the info you need to start your own! 2. Two Weekend Survival Workshops The Edible And Medicinal Plants Walk The Edible and Medicinal Plants Walk is a one-day familiarization course about wild edible and medicinal plants. It is a learning opportunity to increase your knowledge about plants. Moreover, the Edible and Medicinal Plants Walk is a 3-part series. It is taken individually in all the different seasons so that students learn the cycle of plants in their area. As such, the instructors will show you how to identify and harvest these natural resources. Additionally, the instructors of the Sigma 3 Survival School will cover the 50 most common plants in the local area of the school and in North America. Furthermore, the Edible and Medicinal Plants course is a hands-on course. Therefore, you will participate in walks within several different types of ecosystems. Thus, these walks will show you how to find food in almost any environment. Moreover, students will have the opportunity to taste the identified plants. As a result, you will not only learn the edible uses, but also the medicinal, practical and various bushcraft uses of wild plants. Consequently, this learning opportunity will overwhelm you with the amount of information that you will receive. Therefore, you should bring enough writing material to take plenty of notes for later reference. Topics covered include: Learning plant family identification patterns At least 50 different edible/medicinal plants How to prepare plants for edibility Cordage plants and useful bushcraft plants Medicinal Plant applications: treating cuts, anti-diarrheal, making primitive quick clot, stopping bleeding, purgatives, anti-fungal, stimulating the immune system, skin cancers, hygiene/cleansing agents, tannic acid uses, plants with salicin (aka aspirin), laxatives, and much more! What books to buy and how to start wildcrafting This course will cover the basics of identification and procurement. Afterwards, if you want to upgrade your skills, we recommend taking the Herbal Medic course or the Wild Crafter courses. The Weekend Survivor Course The Weekend Survivor Course is for the people who cannot take off time from their employment to attend the more lengthy, multiple week survival classes! We want to be sensitive to respect your time with family and time for vacations. So, Rob Allen and Josh Hamlin came up with a learning opportunity to train you on the standard course skills in a series of weekend classes. As such, these courses will instruct you on the highlights of the more lengthy standard courses. Furthermore, our instructors will teach at a pace so that you can absorb the information. Additionally, Those living within driving distance of the Sigma 3 Survival School, now, can use their free weekends to increase their survival training and experience. While anyone can take the courses, its best suited for people within a 3-hour drive. This series of classes will cover all the highlights of our Standard Courses, in a much shorter time frame. Furthermore, they will ensure you can absorb and replicate all the skills that you are taught. This course is 100% HANDS ON and in the field training. No power point, no classroom, only real dirt time! And you can bring your kids for cheap too! Shelter and Water: Weekend 1 Fire Making: Weekend 2 Wild Plants: Weekend 3 Primitive Trapping & Fishing: Weekend 4 Primitive Tools & Navigation: Weekend 5 Scout Survivor Mini: Weekend 6 Some Final Thoughts There is always room for improving your survival skills and experience. Sigma 3 Survival School is offering some outstanding learning opportunities for you and your family to become more adept in survival techniques. You will not be disappointed by the level of training that you will receive through these learning opportunities. Whether you are looking to start your own survival school or just strengthen some areas in your survival skills, Rob Allen and Josh Hamlin will empower and equip you for success. The post Act Now! 3 Amazing Learning Opportunities At Sigma 3 Survival School appeared first on SIGMA 3 Survival School. View the full article
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